May 26 Richard Christopher Carrington born in Chelsea to Richard
Carrington; proprietor of a Brewery in Brentford., Surry. In the MNRAS
Obituary (MNRAS XXXVI p. 137) it is called the Bentford Brewery in 1876).
His mother was Esther Clarke Aplin who married his father in Epsom, Surrey
on May 24, 1823. The birth was recorded in St. Lukes Church in Chelsea.
had three children baptized to Richard and Esther at St. Lukes Church
Richard Christopher, baptized July 1825
David (born on 26 June and baptized on 23 July 1829)
Esther Fanny (born September 28, 1833 and baptized on October 30)
following quote comes from Brentford Past by Gillian Clegg
ISBN 0948667 79 6 published by Historical Publications Ltd in 2002. The
Royal Brewery was taken over by Mr. Carrington the father of Richard Carrington
the astronomer (1826 1876) It passed to Messrs Gibbon and Croxford,
then to Montague Ballard (1880). It closed in 1923 when it was purchased
by another brewery which in turn was later acquired by Courage
The Royal Brewery lay on the southern side of the High Street at
the eastern end, not far from the bridnge over the Thames to Kew.
is an old town, formerly called Bregentforda in 781 AD and Brentforda
in the Anglo Saxon Chronicles of 1016 AD. The settlement predates the
Roman occupation of Britain and London itself. It has been suggested that
Brentford was the main fording point across the Thames for Julius Caesar
during his invasion of Britain. A battle in 54 AD between Caesar and the
local king Cassivellaunus may have been fought here. Today it is the site
of Kew Gardens and the Royal Botanic Gardens. And the Kew Observatory
built in 1768 for King George III.
www.FamilySearch.org lists R.C. Carrington born on May 26 in Chelsea with
a father Richard Carrington and a mother Esther Clarke. Recorded in St.
Lukes Church in Chelsea.
1828 The Royal Brewery was established and renamed from its previous
Red Lion Brewery when it was owned by Felix Booth. It was
renamed at the suggestion of King William IV
At age 7, Richard Carrington was sent to a school kept by Mr. Faithful
at Hedley where he remained until his father sent him to be prepared for
college in the house of a clergyman named Blogard.
1841 - There is a Will proved in the PCC for a Carrington
living in Brentford. Elizabeth Carrington, widow of Brentford Butts April
21 1841 PROB 11/1944 also for Richard Carrington, Malt Distiller and Farmer
of Thames Bank near Chelsea, Middlesex, December 19, 1835 PROB 11/1854
Entered Trinity College at age 18. Carringtons father had intended
him for the Church, but in his preface to the Redhill Catalog
Carrington explains that the tenour of my mathematical studies at
the Universuity of Cambridge, acting on mechanical propensities to which
I had always been addicted, gradualy mae it clear to me that I was more
naturally adapted for the pursuit f some physical science involving observation
and mechanical ingenuity; than for a profession like the Church.
The PO Directory of London, Commerical Section lists:
Richard Carrington, malt distiller/corn distillers, Thames Bank, Pimlico
Took Prof James Challis (1803 1882) course/s on astronomy
and was inspired. And he prepared himself for the work of an observatory.
His father gave his consent without opposition. The obituary published
in MNRAS XXXVI on Feb 11, 1876 states that
as his probable
future means promised him the opportunity of pursuing his selected occupation
on his private resources, it was as he says with the object of acquiring
experience and of avoiding wasteful and injudicious expense that
he applied for and held for nearly three years the appointment of Observer
at the University of Durham.
Age 22 - Graduated Trinity as thirty-sixth wrangler.
October, Age 23 - Began his observational work at University of
Durham. Poor quality of facilities. Obituary notes that the observatory
was so new that it didnt have much equipment. The result of Carringtons
labors there were not very satisfactory to himself, and the accounts of
his work can be found in a small book published in 1852. The University
of Durham was founded in 1832. Women have been admitted to Durham since
the 1890s. During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the numbers
of students in Durham itself remained small. The University's original
endowment was insufficient to maintain the country's first university
course for engineers instituted in 1837 and, with the exception of Mathematics,
science also declined The University Observatory was established in 1839,
and built up a substantial library of over 600 titles, mostly series of
published astronomical observations from other observatories and a complete
run of the Nautical Almanac, but also including 17th-19th century monographs
and numerous pamphlets and offprints. In 1953 the Observatory library
and the bulk of the Observatory records, were deposited in the University
The early books and periodicals have been incorporated in the University
library's Historical Science Collection. They include the first suppressed
edition of John Flamsteed's Historiae Coelestis Libri Duo (1712) from
the Bignon collection, astronomical books from the collection of Thomas
Wright (1711-86), the Durham polymath, via that of Thomas Thurlow, Bishop
of Durham, among which are Wright's annotated copies of his own Clavis
Caelestis (1742) etc., and other early astronomical works from the collection
of Dr. T.J. Hussey, the astronomer who supplied the Observatory's first
Most post-1850 books and some periodicals have been incorporated in the
general stock of the Library. A number of periodicals (runs of astronomical
observations of other observatories) and the Observatory library's pamphlet
and offprint sequence have yet to be fully incorporated in the University
Library's stock, and are still kept together in a separate 'Observatory
10/1-16. 1849 - 1853
Tables written on card:
Most of these tables appear to have been compiled by Richard Carrington,
observer 1849 - 1852, based on his own or his predecesors' observations.
Some of them were later checked by William Ellis, observer 1852 - 1853.
Table for reducing Barometer readings at different temperatures, to the
same at 32° Fahrenheit.
Calculated by Professor Chevallier in 1844.
Table of proportional parts, for Runs.
Proportional parts of a revolution of the screws of the the Transit Micrometer.
Both examined (by William Ellis).
Intervals of the Transit wires.
Intervals for certain Polar Stars, calculated 20 March 1850.
Logarithms of the divided sums of the intervals of the Transit wires.
Intervals of Transit wires as found in 1851, by Mr. Carrington.
Initialled W.E. (William Ellis), April 1852.
Intervals for Polaris. Initialled J.P. (John Plummer), November 1867.
Intervals of Transit wires found in 1867, illuminated end East.
Initialled J.P. (John Plummer), February 1868.
Intervals of Transit wires found in 1869-70, illuminated end East.
Initialled J.P. (John Plummer), January 1870.
Table of the value of the Micrometer of the Transit circle.
Initialled W.E. (William Ellis), April 1852.
Table for turning seconds of an arc into seconds of time.
The ratio RA (in time): 24 h. in decimals, for convenience in applying
Mean times of transit of Clock Stars in 1850.
Approximate North Polar distances of fundamental Stars.
Table for converting the Right Ascension and North Polar Distance of the
sun, moon, and planets, at Greenwich transit, to the same at Durham transit.
Table of proportional corrections, for change of declination, during the
time of passage from the meridian to any wire, or intermediate interval.
Table of factors for varying Right Ascension with formula for the sun
or a planet and formula for the moon.
Corrections of Polaris and of delta Ursa Minor, for curvature of path.
A rough table of mean Refractions.
Table for computing Refraction off the meridian at Durham.
Examined by W. Ellis, April 1852.
Refraction in Right Ascension and North Polar Distance.
by W.E. (William Ellis), May 1852.
Auxiliary table for the calculation of refraction off the meridian, with
explanation initialled T.C. (Temple Chevallier), 5 May 1852.
Table for computing Parallax off the meridian at Durham, with explanation.
Examined by W.E. (William Ellis), April 1852.
A rough table of the moon's parallax at Durham.
Airey's correction to the moon's equatorial horizontal parallax, to be
used when the parallax is applied to the limit.
Table for facilitating the reduction of clock comparisons.
temp. J. Plummer (observer 1867 - 1874)?
Durham Universityt Records
1851 March 14 admitted as a member of the Royal Astronomical Society.
July 28 Age 25. Travels to Lilla Edet, Sweden to view the total
solar eclipse. Publishes results in MNRAS XXI p. 58. Namnet Lilla Edet
har sina rötter från 1500-talet. Det var på den tiden
då här inte fanns några slussar, utan båtarna drogs
på land över fallen. Ed betyder nämligen "väg
förbi fall", och förr hette Trollhättan därför
Stora Edet! Lilla Edet ligger i Västra Götaland Lilla Edet kallades
ursprungligen Bergaström vilket betyder "Strömmen mellan
bergen". Lilla Edet fick sitt nuvarande namn 1544.
älv som kraftkälla har präglat verksamheten runt orten.
Redan på 1400-talet anlades sågverk och kvarnar men sågverksrörelsen
fick sin blomstringstid först på 1600-talet. Då kanalen
och slussen anlades, kom tulluppbörden att förläggas till
I början av 1700-talet flyttade många människor in till
samhället och invånarantalet uppgick till ca 600 personer.
Under 1800-talet härjades samhället av flera bränder som
ödelade både hus och industrier. Krig med danskar och norskar
förstörde slussen ett flertal gånger.
I slutet av 1800-talet lades det sista sågverket ner och pappersindustrin
började växa fram.
The eclipse path is shown in Fred Espenaks collection http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/solar.html
and in the saved image file.
- 316. 15 February 1851
Letter from Robert Main of Greenwich Observatory to R.C. Carrington commenting
on the results relating to clock errors.
Found in V.38.
Results concerning Clock Errors 18 January - 6 February 1851, supplied
to Carrington by Greenwich Observatory.
Found in V.33. (Durham university records http://flambard.dur.ac.uk/dynaweb/handlist/sci/obsrvtry/@Generic__BookTextView/16805;td=3)
1852 April he concludes his observations at Durham Observatory and includes
them in his Results of Astronomical Observations
March, resigned his position at University of Durham. A small booklet
of his research is published. The Obituary notes that he had little chance
of obtaining more equipment at Dudley and this was a reason for his resignation.
He had, however, taken advantage of the good opportunities for reading
and had formed a plan for completing the survey of the heavens started
by Bessel and Argelander. Which had only been carried by them to a declination
of 81 degrees from the north celestial pole. He decided to re-do their
survey to the 10th magnitude and extend it further in declination.
Ownership of the Royal Brewery passes to Carrington and Whitehurst.
Clock rates of Hardy: notes by R.C. Carrington.
Paper 1f. Durham Observatory Records http://flambard.dur.ac.uk/dynaweb/handlist/sci/obsrvtry/@Generic__BookTextView/2530;td=3;pt=274
1852 Age 26. In June he selected a site for an observatory and
dwelling at Red Hill near Reigate, Surrey. In 1800, much of the land near
Redhill was waterlogged wasteland. In 1818 a road was laid from Gatton
Point through Red Hill and on to link with the London-Brighton Road at
Povey Cross. But it was several more years before Redhill came into existence.
A railroad line was built in 1842 to Dover, and a station created and
named Reigate after the nearby town. In 1845, the name Red Hill existed
only in Red Hill Common. Many railway workers settled nearby at a place
that came to be called Little London. Following rapid population growth,
St Johns Church was built in 1843. Little London was renamed St
.Johns. In 1859 a public meeting began a movement to have Red Hill and
Reigate become a Municipal Borough. In 1863 a Charter of Incorporation
was granted by Queen Victoria.
is a town of great antiquity nestled among hills and trees. It once had
a castle (http://www.castleuk.net/castle_lists_south/187/reigatecastle.htm)
built by the Earls of Warren and Surrey, but it is now gone (smallreigateCastle.jpg).
It once sat atop a hill overlooking the town. Today only public gardens
mark the spot. (see http://www.oldredhill.com/)
June 1852 Carrington identified the site upon which to build the observatory.
Between summer and autumn of 1852 he built his observatory. (See preface
to Spots on the Sun)
His transit instrument was a 5-inch refractor with a 5.5-foot focal length,
and in ca 1876 it was at the Radcliffe Observatory in Oxford. This instrument
is carefully described in Redhill Catalog. There was also a 4.5-inch refractor
with a 4foot 4inch focal length, equatorially mounted for doing rough
surveys of the polar region. The clock I now have was made by the
late H. Appleton of 30 Southhampton Row, Russel Square. It has the dead-beat
escapement; its rate is excellent, but the beat dull, and I have stil
lsome difficulty in this respect to get over before I can set at defiance
the sounds of a busy neighborhood (MNRAD letter XIV p.13).
1854 MNRAS article Notice respecting his observatory at Red Hill
states that the telescopes were built by Mr Simms who fabricated both
the optical and mechanical parts, and who has not been unmindful
of his well-earned reputation The piers of the transit telescope
were made from Caen stone and rested on a thick slab of York flag-stone,
and laid on a considerable mass of concrete which he superintended. The
north and south walls are of stone, 14-inches thick, and without windows.
The party walls are 12-inch thick and of brick. The observatory
is bounded on both sides by occupied rooms with fireplaces on opposite
sides. Without windows, the observatory favors the generation of
and Simms were internationally renouned telescope and microscope makers.
No home hobyists these! So the telescope much have been VERY expensive
for the time.
Obituary says that he superintended the progress of the building
of the observatory. Because he did not have access to his instruments
for research, he was led into the study of some series of drawings
of the suns disk in the possession of the Society. Schwabe had recently
discovered the sunspot cycle, and Sabine had found a complimentary periodicity
in magnetic observations. Carrington was interested in this research but
was disappointed with the quality of past sunspot observations. As a second
interest Carrington noted that the observation of the stars required
the hours of the night and afforded little matter for speculation. The
observation of the sun was a day task and presented more variety and interest;.
July Age 27. he completed the addition of a 5.5-foot transit
circle and a 4.5-inch equatorial refractor, and began his work.
November 9. He begins a careful and daily study of sunspots. This
is the date of his first entry in his solar atlas which will be completed
March 1861. He eventually discovered the differential rotation of the
sun, and was able to create a detailed law for describing
this motion as a function of solar latitude, a feat not accomplished by
previous observers such as Peters (1845).
December 9 submitted to the Astronomical Society maps of all stars
to 9th magnitude within 9degrees of pole. (MNRAS XIV p. 40)
Carrington publishes a detailed account of his Red Hill observatory
(MNRAS XIV p. 13) and we learn that its latitude = 51d 14 25.25
North and longitude = 0d 0m 41.25 West. In the same issue (p. 153
) he also publishes his On a Method of Observing the Positions of
Spots on the Sun with an Example of its Application.
Richard Proctor enters Kings College London. He was a delicate
child, and, his father dying in 1850, his mother attended herself to his
education. On his health improving he was sent
to Kings College, London, from which he obtained a scholarship at
St Johns College,
325. 10 December 1855
Letter from R.C. Carrington at Redhill Observatory, Reigate, to Professor
Chevallier concerning his work on the Polar Stars.
Durham University Archives (http://flambard.dur.ac.uk/dynaweb/handlist/sci/obsrvtry/@Generic__BookTextView/16805;td=3)
1855 Publication of his Durham work Results of Astronomical
Observations made at the Observatory of the University of Durham from
October 1849 to April 1852 (Durham, 1855).
Richard Proctor transfers to Cambridge.
Age 30. Completed atlas of 3735 circumpolar stars.
Visits Germany and Heinrich Schwabe at Dessau to discuss solar
He was commissioned by the Royal Society to transmit the medal
of our Society to Schwabe the aged astronomer of Dessau
for his long labors which had resulted in the discovery of the sun spot
February Age 31. Elected Honorary Secretary of Royal Astronomical
Catalog of Stars published, describing his instruments at Redhill
. Often called the Redhill Catalog.
July. Age 32. Sudden death of his father. Richard takes up responsibility
for the Brentford Brewery (according to the Obituary)
Publishes in MNRAS the article On the Evidence which the
observed Motions of the Solar Spots offer for the existence of an Atmosphere
surrounding the sun (MNRAS ) followed by On the Distribution
of the Solar Spots in Latitude between the years 1854 and 1858 (MNRAS
) and On certain Phenomena in the Motions of Solar Spots (MNRAS
Brentford becomes a railway stop on the Great Western and Brentford
Feb 11, received gold medal of Royal Astronomical Society for his
circumpolar atlas. (MNRAS XIX, p. 162)
The Gold Medal is the highest award of the Royal Astronomical Society.
In the early years, more than one medal was often awarded in a year, but
by 1833 only one medal was being awarded per year. This caused a problem
when Neptune was discovered in 1846, because many felt an award should
jointly be made to John Couch Adams and Urbain Le Verrier. A controversy
arose and no award was made in 1847. The controversy was "resolved"
by giving 12 "testimonial" awards in 1848 to various people
including Adams and Le Verrier, and in 1849 awards resumed, with a limit
of one per year. Adams and Le Verrier did not get their gold medals until
1866 and 1868, respectively.
September 1 Age 33. views the solar flare with his friend
Hodgson at Highgate. They independently submit nearly identical sightings.
(See bio file on Hodgson) (MNRAS XX, p. 13). It isnt clear of they really
were friends, or if te comment simply meant that Hodgson was a friend
of the Royal Society. At the time of the observation, they lived many
At age 23 - Richard Proctor graduates from Cambridge with a bachelors
degree. He graduated as 23rd wrangler. His marriage while still an undergraduate
probably accounted for his low place in the tripos. His wife was Mary
June 7 Age 34. Elected Fellow of Royal Astronomical Society.
Eves Survey of Reigate Borough is completed and list owners
of buildings etc.
Prof Challis steps down as Director of Cambridge Observatory, but
Carrington fails to win nomination for this post. Some sources say that
this disappointment caused a decline in his health and spirits so he gave
up astronomy.(*1) At the age of 42, John Couch Adams assumes Directorship
in 1861. He was one of the two people (LeVerrire) who independently predicted
the location of Neptune in 1846. Adams was clearly the superior candidate
based on his research and educational achievements. Adams became Regius
Professor of Mathematics at St Andrews in 1858. In 1859 he succeeded Peacock
as Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry at Cambridge and held
the post for over 32 years.
March. His duties with the brewery force him to give up solar research.
His assistant, Dr. Schroeder ends his stay at Redhill and the solar observations
come to an end. Also, Carrington notes in his preface to Spots on
, I decided to close the series and wind up
the results I had obtained; the necessity of my being personally engaged
in commerce still continuing; and the prospect of my being able to give
an observers attention to the subject having become very remote,
in consequence of a decision respecting a certain appointment to which
I shall not more particularly allude. This clearly refers to his
shattered expectation that he would be the next Director, and so enjoy
unlimited opportunities to observe.
Age 36. Steps down as Secretary of Royal Astronomical Society,
during which time the writer of his MNRAS obituary calls him indefatiguable
Mary Proctor born two years after Richard gets his bachelors degree
December. The first Mayor of Reigate/Redhill is elected
Reigate Quaker and local lime and coal merchant (he ran the first coal
wharf at Redhill Station), Dann was one of the prime movers of a campaign
to change the old Manor of Reigate, with its rapidly growing new town
of Redhill, into a unified scheme of local government suited to the times.
His outspoken ways aroused hard feelings against him, as did his social
standing in a class-conscious era. Information originally obtained suggested
that Thomas Dann died in May 1872 aged 72 but this would seem to be incorrect
as information kindly supplied by Mr Sean Hawkins reveals that a coal
and lime merchant aged 77 by the same name is shown on the 1881 census
as living with his wife, Charlotte (aged 59) in London Road, Reigate.
Comprehensive cover of Dann's 4 year fight for incorporation, plus his
term in office, is dealt with in 'A History of Redhill' vol. 1. (http://www.redhill-history.fsnet.co.uk/mayors.htm)
Observations of Spots on the Sun Made at Redhill is
Age 39. Severe illness leaves his health permanently impaired.
His active work for the Society ends.
sells the brewery to
., and moves to a lonely spot at
Churt, Surrey (Obituary). Sets up new observatory on Middle Devils
Jump. His property at an elevation of 60-feet above the countryside occupies
19 acres of land 6 miles south of Fareham on part of Frensham Common in
the village of Churt. Latitude 51d 8 49 North, Longitude
0h 3m 1.7s West. Farnham is the nearest post town and railway station.
(MNRAS XXX p. 43).
Proctor at age 28 read for the bar, but turned to astronomy and
authorship instead, and in 1865 published an article on the Colours
of Double Stars in the Cornhill Magazine. The Cornhill Magazine
(1860 1975) was founded by George Smith in 1860. The first editor
was William Makepeace Thackeray and the journal specialized in the serialization
1865 Proctors first book Saturn and its System is self-published.
This work contains an elaborate account of the phenomena presented by
the planet; but although favourably received by astronomers, it had no
great sale. At the time of writing the book,
Proctor was the key shareholder in a New Zealand bank but unfortunately
the bank failed, consuming all his capital and leaving him to ponder his
1866 Richard Proctor elected Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Marries Rosa Jeffries in the July-September Quarter in the Pancras
(Middlesex) Registration District (according to FreeBMN.com, and a letter
I got on October 19, 2004 from Celia)
1870 Proctor publishes Other Worlds than Ours. On page
20 of the Fourth Edition, Proctor describes the Carrington and Hodgson
observation of the flare The light of this spot was so intense
that he imagined the screen which shaded the plate employed to receive
the solar image had been broken. By a fortunate coincidence another observer,
Mr. Hodgson, happened to be watching the sun at the same instant and witnessed
the same remarkable appearance
. (more about the flare and
its magnetic and telegraphic impact follows.
- A possible first child from their union may have been Susannah Harriet
Carrington between Oct-Dec 1871 registered at Pancras Registration District.
Annie Frances Carrington Apr-June 1874 and Katherine
Maynard A. Carrington Apr-June 1875. (according to Celias letter to me
and her geneology search)
Proctor begins as Editor of Proceedings of Royal Astronomical Society
and eventually contributed eighty-three separate papers to its Monthly
At age 36, Richard Proctor elected honorary Fellow of Kings College
and ends Editorship position with RAS..
January 10 Age 47. Carringtons last communique to the Astronomical
Society about his double azimuth instrument.
A survey map was drawn up of Redhill area identifies Carringtons
location as The Observatory. Carringtons comment in
1852 about the noisy neighborhood is supported by the location
of the Observatory so close to the town center and railroad spurs. St
Johns Church had been built in 1843, so this was a growing community.
- December 9 Transit of Venus. Did Carrington observe it before he dies
a year later? What was the weather report for that day?
In MNRAS XXX p. 43 he describes his new observatory at Churt, but on page
46 Richard Proctor discusses the Mercury Transit of 1868 and the importance
of viewing the 1874 and 1882 transits of Venus upcoming! If Carrington
had read his own published article, he most certainly would have seen
Proctors article too.
1875 November 17. Age 49. Mrs. Carrington found dead in her bed,
possibly from overdose of chloral. He was investigated for improper nursing.
He leaves the house on day of inquest. (celias geneology search says that
there were two deaths registered in Farnham Richard age 50 and
Rose Helen Carrington age 30)
November 27 Age 49. He is seen to return to his house, but is never
seen alive again.
Age 49. A poultice of tea leaves was found over his left ear as
if for relief of pain. Post mortem investigation shows that death came
from an effusion of blood on the brain. A verdict of sudden death
from natural causes was recorded. His Obituary cites he died
from a rupture of a blood vessel on the brain.
1876 Carringtons manuscript books purchased by Lord Lindsay (Now Earl
of Crawford) and presented to the Royal Society (MNRAS XXXVI p. 249).
Carrington had also bequeathed 2000 pounds to the Society.
happened to Carringtons instruments?
equatorial refractor spotted flare with this Built by Mr. Simms.
5.5-foot transit circle made star catalog with this
At Radcliff Observatory in Oxford ca 1876 (MNRAS XXXVI p. 139) Built by
See Item 40404 at the Museum of History and Science-Oxford which lists
Transit Instrument, incomplete, by Troughton & Simms, London
Distance between trunions 360 mm; telescope length 620 mm.
Double-Azimuth Instrument nothing productive resulted
1880 Royal Brewery bought by Montague Ballard who was the Maidstone
hop grower, and incorporated as a limited company
Only the Royal Brewery survives from a once booming bear and ale
business in Brentford.
The Royal Brewery (Brentford) Ltd. On 23 High Street was bought,
along with its 102 pubs. The beer for the pubs was now supplied by Style
June 2 The Royal Brewery closes for good.
Royal Brewery demolished and the property incorporated into the
Brentford Gas Works.
The last gasholder was demolished from the Gas Works.
Barrat West London buys the 4.3-acre site from British Gas and
builds a high-rise apartment complex. (www.barrathomes.co.uk)
* Chloral, a compound of chlorine with oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon. The
chloral of the druggist and physician is a compound of choral and water,
and is termed hydrate of choral by the chemist. In this form it is a white,
crystalline substance having an acrid taste and a pungent odor. In medicine,
a dose of from five to twenty grains is sometimes given to produce sleep.
It is thought that choral, introduced into the system, is acted upon by
the alkali of the blood in such a manner as to liberate chloroform, which
acts directly on the nerves of the brain. An overdose of chloral overdoes
the quieting process and paralyzes the brain, the heart, and the lungs,
and brings on death. Chloral is a standard remedy for insomnia, but it
should on no account be taken, except under the advice of a competent
First synthesized in 1832, chloral hydrate was the first depressant developed
for the specific purpose of inducing sleep. Currently marketed as syrups
or soft gelatin capsules, chloral hydrate takes effect in a relatively
short time (about 30 minutes) and will induce sleep in an hour. In Victorian
England, a solution of chloral and alcohol constituted the infamous "knockout
drops" or "Mickey Finn."
Effusion of blood on the brain was not a trivial matter
1916 William Graham, 21, a pitman at Murton Colliery, died from injuries
he received in a fight on the evening of Wednesday, 5 April with fellow
pitman, William Gilroy. Gilroy was waiting with others at the pit mouth
for Graham to come to bank. When he got out of the cage, Gilroy said to
him, "Are you ready to fight as you said you were this morning?",
and then hit him. They then repaired to an adjoining field and fought
about three-quarters of an hour; during the last round the deceased was
knocked down by Gilroy and the latter fell on his breast with his knees,
after this the deceased was unable to fight any longer, and he was carried
home. A surgeon was sent for, but he was unable to save Graham whose body
was a mass of bruises and contusions. The surgeon stated that Graham had
died from "an effusion of blood from the brain", between it
and the pleura matter. At the inquest, the jury asked the Coroner to issue
a warrant for Gilroy's arrest on a charge of manslaughter. http://www.dmm.org.uk/names/a1848-01.htm
- Thursday on the body of Griffith PARRY, aged 68, a sailmaker, who lived
with a nephew, Hugh JONES, a labourer of 7 Court, Harding St. The deceased
left JONESS house on the 28th ult and returned the following morning.
He was addicted to drink and was found covered in blood. He said he had
fallen into a clay pit and missed his way. He died Tuesday last, Dr E.
HOUGHTON conducted a post mortem and said the cause of death was, effusion
of blood on the brain, due to excessive drinking.
1) in 1861 Carrington failed in his bid to secure the directorship of
Cambridge Observatory, in succession to his former astronomy teacher James
Challis. Challis had been Director since 1836.
Bitterly disappointed, Carrington shortly thereafter put an end to his
astronomical work at Redhill. Both his health and his marriage degraded
from that point on, culminating in November 1875 with the death of his
wife from a drug overdose. Ten days later, Carrington himself died, officially
of a brain hemorrhage.
Porter, R. (ed.) 1994, The Biographical Dictionary of Scientists, Oxford
Forbes, E.G., The Dictionary of Scientific Biographies, 1980-1990, new
Meadows, A.J. 1970, Early Solar Physics, Pergamon.
Eve's 1860 survey (a detailed mapping of the Borough of Reigate showing
fields, houses, common land etc. as numbered plots accompanied by an index
that listed ownership of each)
Predominantly open countryside, the Borough has an area of 50 square miles
and is traversed by the North Downs escarpment, which is a designated
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, and the Greensand ridge.
Together these divide the chalk uplands of Banstead from the Weald to
the south. The Borough therefore enjoys a varied and attractive landscape,
and many a natural beauty spot.
Amidst the countryside are the bustling towns of Banstead, Reigate, Redhill
and Horley accommodating a total population of just over 127,000. The
towns and villages within the Borough are a mix of ancient and modern
including an historic market town, railway towns and dormitory villages.
Magnificent scenery and breathtaking views are available to walkers, cyclists
and picnickers across the Borough, and there is plenty of choice, with
3,000 acres of public open space and 1,300 acres of woodland to explore.
Local people love their parks, with our parks and open spaces achieving
the second highest satisfaction rating in the country in a national poll.
The largest park, Priory Park in Reigate offers 200 acres of space and
woodland and was once home to Lord Howard Effingham, Admiral of the Fleet
at the time of the Spanish Armada.
In addition to being a place of great beauty, the park also has sporting
areas and facilities for children, and during the summer plays host to
a number of open air concerts and festivals.
Though it is thought of by some as a new town there has actually been
a settlement in Redhill since the early 19th century.
The building of a road linking Gatton Point to Salfords led to the development
of a hamlet known as Warwick Town, and when the London to Brighton railway
was built in the 1830s the first seeds of a major town on the site were
well and truly sown.
By 1841 trains were running on a daily basis and the town began to boom,
providing housing and facilities for railway workers and users alike.
Within nine years a branch line was built taking passengers from Redhill
to Reigate and off across Surrey.
At the time it was known as Reigate Junction but by the end of the 1850s
it had been renamed: 'Red Hill Junction'.
The look of the town itself has changed much over the years and would
be unrecognisable to someone who knew it at the beginning of the 20th
Many of the buildings which were erected in the nineteenth century have
been replaced by more modern counterparts such as the Warwick Quadrant
and the Belfry Shopping Centre.
The chief streams besides the Thames are the Wey, the Mole, and the Wandle.
Mineral springs are at Epsom, Chobham, Streatham, Kingston, Dulwich, Godstone,
Stoke, and Dorking. Lower chalk rocks, chiefly Weald clay, occupy all
the S; upper chalk rocks form a belt along the course of the central line
of downs; and lower and middle eocene rocks, with large preponderance
of London clay, occupy all the rest of the area. Ragstone, manorial chalk,
fire clay, and fullers' earth are the chief useful minerals.
The soils correspond much to the character of the underlying rocks, yet
exhibit considerable intermixture of chalk, clay, loam, and humus, and
are exceedingly various. More than 60,000 acres are heath. The county
is one of the driest and warmest in England. Agricultural practice varies
with the character of the land and with distance from the metropolis.
Wheat yields from 2 to 6 quarters per acre, barley from 4 to 7 quarters.
Beans, pease, and turnips are much grown on the arable lands; clover,
sainfoin, and woad on certain soils; hops are cultivated near Farnham;
cabbages, carrots, parsnips, asparagus, and kindred plants are currently
cultivated in the market-gardens; and enormous quantities of mint, lavender,
camomile, liquorice, rosemary, hyssop, and other seasoning or medical
plants are raised in Mitcham and its neighbourhood. Farms average from
200 to 300 acres, but are of all sizes. Cattle of various breeds are fattened;
house-Iamb, particularly around Guildford, is reared for the markets;
sheep, chiefly Southdowns, are pastured in the centre and in the west;
and Berkshire pigs and Dorking fowls are largely kept.
west to east the sandy heaths, beech clad hills and rolling chalkland
of the North Downs provide open space and very pleasant walking. Indeed,
the most important routes in Surrey are the North Downs Way from Farnham
to the Kent border and, on the southern parallel Greensand Ridge, the
Greensand Way, from Haselmere to Limpsfield. The Vanguard Way also travels
across Surrey during it's journey from London to the south coast.
There are a number of beauty spots in Surrey which can become quite busy
near car parks or visitor centres, but which provide good starting points
for walks. Box Hill (NT) on the North Downs is an outstanding area of
woodland and chalk downland providing some beautiful walking with spectacular
views towards the south downs. Further south at Leith Hill (NT) on the
Greensand Ridge, the highest point in south east England, there are more
secluded walks amongst woodland containing ancient stands of hazel and
oak. There are magnifient views from the summit and the area is famous
for its colourful display of rhododendrons between May and June, a good
time to plan a walk here. Another good location is Hindhead Commons and
the stunning scenery of the Devil's Punchbowl.
in the Surrey Hills by: Janet Spayne and Audrey Krynski. This book of
walks, now in its eight edition, has once more been completely revised
and updated by Janet Spayne and Audrey Krynski. A local best-seller since
the day of publication, the book describes twenty walks along and over
the North Downs of Surrey from Guildford past Dorking, Redhill and Reigate
to Chelsham. Each walk is accompanied by a sketch map, information on
how to reach the start, where to park and the degree of difficulty (if
any). There are alternative routes for those with children, and suggested
places for refreshment along the way. The twenty walks offer a safe and
exhilarating morning or afternoon in some of the widest variety of countryside
to be found in England.
St. Lukes Church
RedHill (1852 1861)
St. Johns Church (built 1843) still there
Christian Fellowship (Redhill)
Holy Trinity, Redhill
Redhill Christian Fellowship
Reigate and Redhill Community Church
St Joseph Catholic Church
St Teresa of the Child Jesus
Station Road Church
The Salvation Army
Tollgate Evangelical Church
Cemetary ( at least since 1917)
St John the Evangelist
Royal Society Gold Medals
Charles Babbage, Johann Franz Encke
1826 John Herschel, James South, Wilhelm Struve
1827 Francis Baily
1828 Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, James Dunlop, Caroline Herschel
1829 Rev. William Pearson, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel, Heinrich Christian
1830 William Richardson, Johann Franz Encke
1831 Captain Henry Kater, Baron Marie-Charles Damoiseau
1833 George Biddell Airy
1835 Lieut. Manuel J. Johnson
1836 John Herschel
1837 Otto A. Rosenberger
1839 The Hon. John Wrottesley
1840 Giovanni Plana
1841 Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel
1842 Peter Andreas Hansen
1843 Francis Baily
1845 Captain William Henry Smyth
1846 George Biddell Airy
1849 William Lassell
1850 Otto Wilhelm Struve
1851 Annibale de Gasparis
1852 Christian August Friedrich Peters
1853 John Russell Hind
1854 Charles Rümker
1855 William Rutter Dawes
1856 Robert Grant
1857 Heinrich Schwabe
1858 The Rev. Robert Main
1859 Richard Christopher Carrington
1860 Peter Andreas Hansen
1861 Hermann Goldschmidt
1862 Warren de la Rue
1863 Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander
1865 George Phillips Bond
1866 John Couch Adams
1867 William Huggins, William Allen Miller
1868 Urbain Le Verrier
1869 Edward James Stone
1870 Charles Delaunay
1872 Giovanni Schiaparelli
1874 Simon Newcomb
1875 Heinrich d'Arrest
1876 Urbain Le Verrier
1878 Baron Ercole Dembowski
1879 Asaph Hall
1881 Axel Möller
1882 David Gill
1883 Benjamin A. Gould
1884 Andrew Ainslie Common
1885 William Huggins
1886 Edward Charles Pickering, Charles Pritchard
1887 George William Hill
1888 Arthur Auwers
1889 Maurice Loewy
1892 George Howard Darwin
1893 Hermann Carl Vogel
1894 S. W. Burnham
1895 Isaac Roberts
1896 Seth Carlo Chandler
1897 Edward Emerson Barnard
1898 William Frederick Denning
1899 Frank McClean
1900 Henri Poincaré
1901 Edward Charles Pickering
1902 Jacobus Kapteyn
1903 Hermann Struve
1904 George Ellery Hale
1905 Lewis Boss
1906 William Wallace Campbell
1907 Ernest William Brown
1908 Sir David Gill
1909 Oskar Backlund
1910 Friedrich Küstner
1911 Philip Herbert Cowell
1912 Arthur Robert Hinks
1913 Henri-Alexandre Deslandres
1914 Max Wolf
1915 Alfred Fowler
1916 John L. E. Dreyer
1917 Walter Sydney Adams
1918 John Evershed
1919 Guillaume Bigourdan
1921 Henry Norris Russell
1922 James Hopwood Jeans
1923 Albert A. Michelson
1924 Arthur Eddington
1925 Sir Frank Watson Dyson
1926 Albert Einstein
1927 Frank Schlesinger
1928 R. A. Sampson
1929 Ejnar Hertzsprung
1930 John Stanley Plaskett
1931 Willem de Sitter
1932 Robert Grant Aitken
1933 Vesto Slipher
1934 Harlow Shapley
1935 E. Arthur Milne
1936 Hisashi Kimura
1937 Harold Jeffreys
1938 William Hammond Wright
1939 Bernard Lyot
1940 Edwin Hubble
1943 Harold Spencer Jones
1944 Otto Struve
1945 Bengt Edlen
1946 Jan Oort
1947 Marcel Minnaert
1948 Bertil Lindblad
1949 Sydney Chapman
1950 Joel Stebbins
1951 Anton Pannekoek
1952 John Jackson
1953 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
1954 Walter Baade
1955 Dirk Brouwer
1956 Thomas George Cowling
1957 Albrecht Unsöld
1958 André Danjon
1959 Raymond Arthur Lyttleton
1960 Viktor Ambartsumian
1961 Herman Zanstra
1962 Bengt Strömgren
1963 H. H. Plaskett
1964 Martin Ryle, Maurice Ewing
1965 Edward Bullard, G. M. Clemence
1966 Ira S. Bowen, Harold C. Urey
1967 Hannes Alfven, Allan Sandage
1968 Sir Fred Hoyle, Walter Munk
1969 A. T. Price, Martin Schwarzschild
1970 Horace W. Babcock
1971 F. Press, Sir Richard van der Riet Woolley
1972 H. I. S. Thirlaway, Fritz Zwicky
1973 F. Birch, Edwin Salpeter
1974 Ludwig Biermann, K. E. Bullen
1975 Jesse Greenstein, Ernst Öpik
1976 William H. McCrea, J. A. Ratcliffe
1977 D. R. Bates, John G. Bolton
1978 Lyman Spitzer, James Van Allen
1979 L. Knopoff, C. G. Wynne
1980 C. L. Pekeris, Maarten Schmidt
1981 J. F. Gilbert, Sir Bernard Lovell
1982 Riccardo Giacconi, Sir Harrie Massey
1983 M. J. Seaton, Fred Whipple
1984 S. K. Runcorn, Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich
1985 Thomas Gold, Stephen Hawking
1986 G. E. Backus, A. Dalgarno
1987 Takesi Nagata, Martin Rees
1988 D. L. Anderson, C. de Jager
1989 R. Hide, K. A. Pounds
1990 J. W. Dungey, B. E. J. Pagel
1991 Vitaly Ginzburg, G. J. Wasserburg
1992 D. P. McKenzie, E. N. Parker
1993 Peter Goldreich, Donald Lynden-Bell
1994 J. E. Gunn, T. R. Kaiser
1995 J. Houghton, Rashid Sunyaev
1996 K. Creer, Vera Rubin
1997 D. Farley, Donald Osterbrock
1998 R. L. Parker, James Peebles
1999 K. Budden, Bohdan Paczynski
2000 L. Lucy, R. Hutchinson
2001 Hermann Bondi, H. Rishbeth
2002 L. Mestel, J. A. Jacobs
2003 John Bahcall, D. Gubbins
2004 Jeremiah P. Ostriker, Grenville Turner
Royal Astronomical Society
Library and Archives: http://www.ras.org.uk/html/ras_library.html
Peter Hingley pdh x215
London W1J 0BQ, UK